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Staff Member
There are hundreds of commands that are used in day-to-day Windows administration.
Some Useful Commands to Be Run from the Windows Command Prompt are as follows:

1tasklisttasklistLists all the tasks that are currently active on the system (similar to what’s displayed in Task Manager).
2tracerttracert < host name >Traces the routing path from your system to the target host.
3ipconfigipconfig /allLists all network interfaces along with IP and MAC if assigned.
4driverquerydriverqueryLists all the device drivers currently installed on the system.
5ciphercipher /w:Makes folder content unrecoverable by overwriting the deleted data.
6assocassocLists the associations between file extensions and their corresponding programs.

Beyond the common Linux commands (cd, ls, man, mkdir, rm, cp, date, time, cat, echo, vi and so on), below we listed out some of the commands that might be useful from a security perspective.

1unameuname -aReturns the Linux kernel version and architecture details.
2sudosudo < command >Gives root privileges temporarily for running a command.
3lastlastGives details about when a particular user was last logged in.
4diffdiff < folder1 > < folder2 >Finds and prints differences in files present in two folders.
5historyhistoryPrints a list of the commands that were previously fired from the terminal.
6uptimeuptimeReturns the time duration for which the system has been running since the last boot, or start.
7wwPrints details about users who have logged in with CPU usage.
8crontabcrontab -lFor the current user, this command lists any scheduled jobs/tasks.
9lsoflsofLists files opened by the current user.
10killkill -9 < PID >Kills the process with the process ID passed in the argument.